La phytothérapie et l’aromathérapie

La phytothérapie et l’aromathérapie

12 juillet 2020 Non Par David Kerhoas

C’est l’utilisation des propriétés pharmacologiques naturelles  des molécules contenues dans les plantes.

Un conseil de qualité en phytothérapie impose :

  • De nommer la plante sous son nom botanique international : nom de genre et d’espèce (ex. Passiflora incarnata L.),
  • De préciser l’organe de la plante utilisé (ex. : parties aériennes),
  • D’indiquer sa présentation (gélule, comprimé, sirop, Huile Essentielle…),
  • De spécifier le dosage et la durée de prise.

Il existe :

  • Des médicaments à base de plantes, dont certains ne sont pas soumis à prescription médicale,
  • Des substances végétales : plantes sèches, ou plantes non transformées,
  • Des préparations végétales, ex. : Huiles Essentielles, compléments alimentaires, etc.

L’utilisation des plantes est très encadrée. 114 d’entre elles sont reconnues par l’EMA. D’autres sont en cours d’évaluation.

La phytothérapie offre de nombreuses applications (exemples plus bas), elle peut être associée à certains traitements.

En RDV, vous bénéficierez d’un conseil individualisé et sécuritaire.

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Références scientifiques :
Les études citées ne représentent qu’une petite partie de la bibliographie disponible.
 

Phytothérapie basée sur les preuves (evidence based medicine)

Francesco Chiappelli, Paolo Prolo, Olivia S. Cajulis. Evidence-based Research in Complementary and Alternative Medicine I: History. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2005 December; 2(4): 453–458. PMCID: PMC1297495 texte intégral
Francesco Chiappelli, Paolo Prolo, Monica Rosenblum, Myeshia Edgerton, Olivia S. Cajulis. Evidence-Based Research in Complementary and Alternative Medicine II: The Process of Evidence-Based Research. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 March; 3(1): 3–12. PMCID: PMC1375240 texte intégral
Francesco Chiappelli, Audrey M. Navarro, David R. Moradi, Ercolano Manfrini, Paolo Prolo. Evidence-Based Research in Complementary and Alternative Medicine III: Treatment of Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 December; 3(4): 411–424. PMCID: PMC1697743 texte intégral
Fabio Firenzuoli, Luigi Gori. Herbal Medicine Today: Clinical and Research Issues. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2007 September; 4(Suppl 1): 37–40. PMID 18227931
C Mar and S Bent. An evidence-based review of the 10 most commonly used herbs. West J Med. 1999 September; 171(3): 168–171. PMCID: PMC1305802 texte intégral
Sharma A, Cardoso-Taketa A, García G, Villarreal ML. A systematic updated review of scientifically tested selected plants used for anxiety disorders. Botanics: Targets and Therapy, September 2012, Volume 2, Pages 21 – 39 [1]
Pal SK, Shukla Y. Herbal medicine: current status and the future. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2003 Aug-Dec;4(4):281-8. PMID 14728584

Études concernant l’efficacité de la phytothérapie dans les troubles psychiatriques

Sarris J, Panossian A, Schweitzer I, Stough C, Scholey A. Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011 Dec;21(12):841-60. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2011.04.002. PMID 21601431
Sarris J. Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: a systematic review. Phytother Res. 2007 Aug;21(8):703-16. PMID 17562566
Walter G, Rey JM. The relevance of herbal treatments for psychiatric practice. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 1999 Aug;33(4):482-9; discussion 490-3. PMID 10483842
Shahin Akhondzadeh, Javad Maleki. Herbal Medicines In The Treatment of Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders. Iran J Psychiatry 2006; 1: 1-11 [2]
Sarris J, McIntyre E, Camfield DA. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence. CNS Drugs. 2013 Apr;27(4):301-19. doi: 10.1007/s40263-013-0059-9. PMID 23653088
Rachael Evans, Shannon Moss, Cathy C. Montoya. Which nutritional therapies are safe and effective for depression? J Fam Pract. 2011 February;60(02):99-100c. texte intégral
Liu L, Liu C, Wang Y, Wang P, Li Y, Li B. Herbal Medicine for Anxiety, Depression and Insomnia. Current Neuropharmacology. 2015;13(4):481-493. doi:10.2174/1570159X1304150831122734. texte intégral
Lee G, Bae H. Therapeutic Effects of Phytochemicals and Medicinal Herbs on Depression. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:6596241. PMID 28503571
Martins J, S B. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of anti-depressant medicinal plants: A review. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Aug;104:343-365. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.05.044. PMID 29778018

Phytothérapie et immunité

Takeda K, Okumura K. CAM and NK Cells. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2004;1(1):17-27. doi:10.1093/ecam/neh014. texte intégral
Amirghofran Z, Bahmani M, Azadmehr A, Javidnia K, Miri R. Immunomodulatory activities of various medicinal plant extracts: effects on human lymphocytes apoptosis. Immunol Invest. 2009;38(2):181-92. doi: 10.1080/08820130902817051. PMID 19330626
Choi EM, Kim AJ, Kim YO, Hwang JK. Immunomodulating activity of arabinogalactan and fucoidan in vitro. J Med Food. 2005 Winter;8(4):446-53. PMID 16379554
Luettig B, Steinmüller C, Gifford GE, Wagner H, Lohmann-Matthes ML. Macrophage activation by the polysaccharide arabinogalactan isolated from plant cell cultures of Echinacea purpurea. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1989 May 3;81(9):669-75. PMID 2785214
Classen B, Thude S, Blaschek W, Wack M, Bodinet C. Immunomodulatory effects of arabinogalactan-proteins from Baptisia and Echinacea. Phytomedicine. 2006 Nov;13(9-10):688-94. PMID 17085292
Zhou L, Liu Z, Wang Z, et al. Astragalus polysaccharides exerts immunomodulatory effects via TLR4-mediated MyD88-dependent signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo. Scientific Reports. 2017;7:44822. doi:10.1038/srep44822. PMID 28303957
Pungle P, Banavalikar M, Suthar A, Biyani M, Mengi S. Immunomodulatory activity of boswellic acids of Boswellia serrata Roxb. Indian J Exp Biol. 2003 Dec;41(12):1460-2. PMID 15320503
O. Kayser, H. Kolodziej, A. F. Kiderlen. Immunomodulatory principles of Pelargonium sidoides. Phytotherapy Research, Volume 15, Issue 2, pages 122–126, March 2001

Phytothérapie et restauration de l’activité des antibiotiques face aux germes résistants

Hatano T, Kusuda M, Inada K, Ogawa TO, Shiota S, Tsuchiya T, Yoshida T. Effects of tannins and related polyphenols on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Phytochemistry. 2005 Sep;66(17):2047-55. PMID 16153408
Hatano T, Kusuda M, Hori M, Shiota S, Tsuchiya T, Yoshida T. Theasinensin A, a tea polyphenol formed from (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, suppresses antibiotic resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Planta Med. 2003 Nov;69(11):984-9. PMID 14735433
Shiota S, Shimizu M, Sugiyama J, Morita Y, Mizushima T, Tsuchiya T. Mechanisms of action of corilagin and tellimagrandin I that remarkably potentiate the activity of beta-lactams against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Microbiol Immunol. 2004;48(1):67-73. PMID 14734860
Shiota S, Shimizu M, Mizusima T, Ito H, Hatano T, Yoshida T, Tsuchiya T. Restoration of effectiveness of beta-lactams on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by tellimagrandin I from rose red. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2000 Apr 15;185(2):135-8.
Fujita M, Shiota S, Kuroda T, Hatano T, Yoshida T, Mizushima T, Tsuchiya T. Remarkable synergies between baicalein and tetracycline, and baicalein and beta-lactams against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Microbiol Immunol. 2005;49(4):391-6. PMID 15840965
Chan BC, Ip M, Lau CB, Lui SL, Jolivalt C, Ganem-Elbaz C, Litaudon M, Reiner NE, Gong H, See RH, Fung KP, Leung PC. Synergistic effects of baicalein with ciprofloxacin against NorA over-expressed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and inhibition of MRSA pyruvate kinase. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Sep 1;137(1):767-73.
Pechère Claude. Présentation : Comment les bactéries résistent aux antibiotiques : une première forme d’intelligence collective ?How bacteria resist antibiotics : a primary form of collective intelligence ? Séance thématique :« Du bon usage des antibiotiques » « Correct antibiotic usage » Bulletin de l’Académie Nationale de Médecine, Volume 188, Issue 8, November 2004, Pages 1249-1256 [3]

Phytothérapie et activité antifongique

Zida A, Bamba S, Yacouba A, Ouedraogo-Traore R, Guiguemdé RT. Anti-Candida albicans natural products, sources of new antifungal drugs: A review. J Mycol Med. 2017 Mar;27(1):1-19. doi: 10.1016/j.mycmed.2016.10.002. PMID 27842800
Phytothérapie et pédiatrie
Les enfants et les produits de santé naturels: Ce que le clinicien devrait savoir. Paediatr Child Health. 2005 avril; 10(4): 236–241. PMCID: PMC2722535 texte intégral
Phytothérapie et inflammation
Beg S, Swain S, Hasan H, Barkat MA, Hussain MS. Systematic review of herbals as potential anti-inflammatory agents: Recent advances, current clinical status and future perspectives. Pharmacognosy Reviews. 2011;5(10):120-137. doi:10.4103/0973-7847.91102. texte intégral
Phytothérapie et gestion de la douleur
Almeida RN, Navarro DS, Barbosa-Filho JM. Plants with central analgesic activity. Phytomedicine. 2001 Jul;8(4):310-22. PMID 11515723
Zareba G. Phytotherapy for pain relief. Drugs Today (Barc). 2009 Jun;45(6):445-67. doi: 10.1358/dot.2009.45.6.1354120. PMID 19649334
Calixto JB, Beirith A, Ferreira J, Santos AR, Filho VC, Yunes RA. Naturally occurring antinociceptive substances from plants. Phytother Res. 2000 Sep;14(6):401-18. PMID 10960893
McCurdy CR, Scully SS. Analgesic substances derived from natural products (natureceuticals). Life Sci. 2005 Dec 22;78(5):476-84. PMID 16216276

Phytothérapie et hypertension artérielle

Hansen K, Nyman U, Smitt UW, Adsersen A, Gudiksen L, Rajasekharan S, Pushpangadan P. In vitro screening of traditional medicines for anti-hypertensive effect based on inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). J Ethnopharmacol. 1995 Aug 11;48(1):43-51. PMID 8569246
Phytothérapie et hormones
Gunter G.C. Kuhnle, Caterina Dell’Aquila, Sue M. Aspinall, Shirley A. Runswick, Annemiek M.C.P. Joosen, Angela A. Mulligan, Sheila A. Bingham. Phytoestrogen content of fruits and vegetables commonly consumed in the UK based on LC–MS and 13C-labelled standards. Food Chemistry, Volume 116, Issue 2, 15 September 2009, Pages 542–554
Heidi Schwartz , Gerhard Sontag, Jenny Plumb. Inventory of phytoestrogen databases. Food Chemistry, Volume 113, Issue 3, 1 April 2009, Pages 736–747
Carmichael SL, Gonzalez-Feliciano AG, Ma C, Shaw GM, Cogswell ME. Estimated dietary phytoestrogen intake and major food sources among women during the year before pregnancy. Nutr J. 2011 Oct 6;10:105. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-10-105. PMID 21978267

Phytothérapie et activité antivirale

Arora R, Chawla R, Marwah R, et al. Potential of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Preventive Management of Novel H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) Pandemic: Thwarting Potential Disasters in the Bud. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM. 2011;2011:586506. doi:10.1155/2011/586506. texte intégral
Herrmann, F.; Romero, M.R.; Blazquez, A.G.; Kaufmann, D.; Ashour, M.L.; Kahl, S.; Marin, J.J.; Efferth, T.; Wink, M. Diversity of Pharmacological Properties in Chinese and European Medicinal Plants: Cytotoxicity, Antiviral and Antitrypanosomal Screening of 82 Herbal Drugs. Diversity 2011, 3, 547-580.
Zhang P, Liu X, Liu H, Wang W, Liu X, Li X, Wu X. Astragalus polysaccharides inhibit avian infectious bronchitis virus infection by regulating viral replication. Microb Pathog. 2018 Jan;114:124-128. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2017.11.026. PMID 29170045
Liu X, Zhang M, He L, Li YP, Kang YK. Chinese herbs combined with Western medicine for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jan 25;(1):CD004882. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004882.pub2. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;10:CD004882. PMID 16437501
Zakaryan H, Arabyan E, Oo A, Zandi K. Flavonoids: promising natural compounds against viral infections. Arch Virol. 2017 Sep;162(9):2539-2551. doi: 10.1007/s00705-017-3417-y. PMID 28547385
Visintini Jaime MF, Redko F, Muschietti LV, Campos RH, Martino VS, Cavallaro LV. In vitro antiviral activity of plant extracts from Asteraceae medicinal plants. Virol J. 2013 Jul 27;10:245. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-10-245. PMID 23890410
Akram M, Tahir IM, Shah SMA, Mahmood Z, Altaf A, Ahmad K, Munir N, Daniyal M, Nasir S, Mehboob H. Antiviral potential of medicinal plants against HIV, HSV, influenza, hepatitis, and coxsackievirus: A systematic review. Phytother Res. 2018 May;32(5):811-822. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6024. PMID 29356205
Liu AL, Wang HD, Lee SM, Wang YT, Du GH. Structure-activity relationship of flavonoids as influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitors and their in vitro antiviral activities. Bioorg Med Chem. 2008 Aug 1;16(15):7141-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2008.06.049. PMID 18640042
Jeong HJ, Ryu YB, Park SJ, Kim JH, Kwon HJ, Kim JH, Park KH, Rho MC, Lee WS. Neuraminidase inhibitory activities of flavonols isolated from Rhodiola rosea roots and their in vitro anti-influenza viral activities. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009 Oct 1;17(19):6816-23. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2009.08.036. PMID 19729316
Jo S, Kim S, Shin DH, Kim MS. Inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease by flavonoids. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2020 Dec;35(1):145-151. doi: 10.1080/14756366.2019.1690480. PMID 31724441
Huang J, Su D, Feng Y, Liu K, Song Y. Antiviral herbs–present and future. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2014;14(1):61-73. PMID 25159303
Wajid Hussain, Kashif Syed Haleem, Ibrar Khan, Isfahan Tauseef, Sadia Qayyum, Bilal Ahmed & Muhammad Nasir Riaz. Medicinal plants: a repository of antiviral metabolites. REVIEW. FUTURE VIROLOGYVOL. 12, NO. 6 Published Online:8 Jun 2017https://doi.org/10.2217/fvl-2016-0110

Ethnopharmacologie

Vandebroek I. Intercultural health and ethnobotany: how to improve healthcare for underserved and minority communities? J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Jul 30;148(3):746-54. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.05.039. PMID 23727048
Paula De Vos. European Materia Medica in Historical Texts: Longevity of a Tradition and Implications for Future Use. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 October 28; 132(1): 28–47. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2010.05.035. texte intégral
Fleurentin Jacques. Ethics, regulations and development: new perspectives in ethnopharmacology for the next decade, V Coloquio Europeo de Etnofarmacología. Revista de Fitoterapia 2005; 5 (S1) 13 texte intégral
Fleurentin J. et Dos Santos J. (1991) L’ethnopharmacologie : une approche pluridisciplinaire in Fleurentin J. et coll. (eds) Ethnopharmacologie. Sources, méthodes, objectifs. Paris – Metz, Orstom Eds – Société Française d’Ethnopharmacologie, 493 p.
http://www.ethnopharmacologia.org